The ancient city-kingdom of Kition's architectural ruins offer compelling evidence of the Mycenaean Achaeans' presence in Larnaka (Larnaca) during the 13th to 11th century BC, followed by the Phoenicians' settlement in the 9th century BC.
During the late 13th century, the Mycenaean Achaeans fortified the city with impressive cyclopean walls constructed from large limestone blocks. Subsequently, the Phoenicians arrived in the 9th century and built the temple of Astarte, the Goddess of Fertility, linked to the worship of Goddess Aphrodite. Ptolemy 1st Soter, the Egyptian Pharaoh, later occupied and destroyed Kition in 312 BC, yet the city continued to be inhabited through Christian times.
Kition's fame centered around its harbor, which facilitated the export of various agricultural products to the eastern Mediterranean, Egypt, and the Aegean. Its strategic location also made it an excellent naval base, with intriguing ship drawings etched into building walls at the ancient port.
Among the most captivating architectural remains is the Temple of Aphrodite-Astarte, constructed by the same Phoenician masons responsible for building the renowned Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem during the 9th century BC.
Additionally, nearby, Egyptian-style temples from the 18th Egyptian Dynasty, pre-dating their Greek counterparts and serving the pre-Hellenic Cypriot population, have been discovered.
The excavation of this site holds historical significance as one of the first undertaken by the Cyprus Department of Antiquities after the island gained independence from British Rule in the early 1960s.
Situated on the left bank of the river Pediaios, in the region that now encompasses the villages of Politiko, Pera, and Episkopio, stands a vast archaeological site with remarkable discoveries. Among the findings are the temple of Aphrodite, two grand royal tombs, and several smaller burial sites.
In the Dali Village area of Cyprus lies the significant archaeological site of Idalion, renowned for its abundant discoveries displayed in prestigious museums worldwide. The origins of this ancient city are attributed to Chalcanor, an Achaean hero from the Trojan War and a descendant of Teucer, the founder of Salamis.
Amathous, an important ancient city-kingdom in Cyprus, holds mythological significance as it was where the Greek hero Theseus left the pregnant Ariadne in the care of local women. The city was also a significant center for worshipping the Goddess Aphrodite-Astarte. The archaeological site of Amathous boasts a wealth of historical discoveries. Among them are the Agora, the public baths, the Temple of Aphrodite, early Christian basilicas, and several tombs.
Kourion, one of the island's most significant city-kingdoms in ancient times, boasts remarkable archaeological remains that have been extensively excavated. These findings can be explored at the site. Built atop hills, the city-kingdom of Kourion commanded a view of the fertile valley of the river Kouris. Archaeological evidence suggests a connection between Kourion and the Greek legend of Argos of Peloponnese, with its inhabitants believing they were descendants of Argean immigrants.
Kolossi castle stands as a splendid illustration of military architecture, originally constructed in the 13th century and later rebuilt in its current form during the 15th century. Following the fall of Acre in 1291, it assumed the role of the Grand Commandery for the Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.